For other uses, see Strategy (disambiguation).
|Part of a series on|
- Strategy • Strategic management
- Military strategy • Maritime strategy
- Strategic planning • Game theory
- Strategic studies • Strategic thinking
- Michael Porter • Rita Gunther McGrath
- Bruce Henderson • Gary Hamel
- Candace A. Yano • C. K. Prahalad
- Jim Collins • Liddell Hart
- Carl von Clausewitz • Sun Tzu
- Julian Corbett • Alfred Thayer Mahan
- J.C. Wylie • Adrian Slywotzky
- Sharon Oster • Chris Zook
- Henry Mintzberg • Clay Christensen
- Business model
- Competitive advantage • Experience curve
- Value chain • Portfolio theory
- Core competency • Generic strategies
- Sharing economy • Performance effects
Frameworks and tools
- SWOT • Five forces
- Balanced scorecard
- PEST analysis • Growth–share matrix
Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a general plan to achieve one or more long-term or overall goals under conditions of uncertainty. In the sense of the "art of the general", which included several subsets of skills including military tactics, siegecraft, logistics etc., the term came into use in the 6th century C.E. in Eastern Roman terminology, and was translated into Western vernacular languages only in the 18th century. From then until the 20th century, the word "strategy" came to denote "a comprehensive way to try to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force, in a dialectic of wills" in a military conflict, in which both adversaries interact.
Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve goals are usually limited. Strategy generally involves setting goals and priorities, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends (goals) will be achieved by the means (resources). Strategy can be intended or can emerge as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. It involves activities such as strategic planning and strategic thinking.
Henry Mintzberg from McGill University defined strategy as a pattern in a stream of decisions to contrast with a view of strategy as planning, while Henrik von Scheel defines the essence of strategy as the activities to deliver a unique mix of value – choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals. while Max McKeown (2011) argues that "strategy is about shaping the future" and is the human attempt to get to "desirable ends with available means". Dr. Vladimir Kvint defines strategy as "a system of finding, formulating, and developing a doctrine that will ensure long-term success if followed faithfully." Complexity theorists define strategy as the unfolding of the internal and external aspects of the organization that results in actions in a socio-economic context.